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Fashion as a visual art

Брой 28 / Юли 2016 г.
Медии и обществени комуникации

Prof. DSc Lubomir Stoykov





Fashion as a visual art
Prof. DSc Lubomir Stoykov
In the article, fashion is seen as a syncretic type of dynamic visual art. Arguments from the work of fabulous designers such as Charles Frederick Worth, Paul Poiret, Sonia Delaunay, Elsa Schiaparelli, Coco Chanel, Cristobal Balenciaga, Christian Dior, Yves Saint Laurent, John Galliano and others, have been used to create cultural and aesthetic respect with the high norm of their creative invention and the eternity of their ideas and works. The nature of fashion is analyzed as an art, including its creative character, the essence of the fashion designer, the relationship between fashion and other arts, as well as the aesthetic impact on the audience. A special emphasis is placed on haute couture - its genesis and its modern metamorphoses. The author asserts that haute couture and unique fashion design are equal and equivalent to other arts. The nature of the fashion designer, the creative nature of the fashion design itself, as well as the manifestations and works of the haute couture, prove this identity with no doubt.
Keywords: fashion, fashion design, art, aesthetics, experiment, avant-garde, simultaneous dress, art deco, surrealism, fobism, cubism, constructivism, futurism, fashion masterpieces.


In the majority of artistic and aesthetic research and analysis, fashion equates to the art of presumption *. Often, this is done without offering any system of evidence and arguments. This emphasis is usually at the level of the surface statement and is done so mechanically that it becomes suspicious. What, however, does so many people, both connoisseurs and non-educators, accept uncritically the idea that fashion is art? And if so, why then do many continue to look at it as something frivolous, superficial and ephemeral? Spiritual inertia, questionable competence, or the fear of the power of fashion, prompt official science to categorize "fashion" and "fashion design" only as applied or even industrial arts? Can we also differentiate between the "transient" and the "eternal" in the style of dressing and in the creation of fashion works in general?

   Undoubtedly, fashion is an art - though a new, more special, syncretic and applied type. In the scientific literature, fashion is graded as an art directly or as a form of art. If we look at the leading features of traditional art and try to look for them in the original works of fashion and fashion design, we will certainly find most (aesthetic, communicative, cognitive, educational, social, recreational, compensatory and other functions) in their full action. The immortality of works in fashion design is also extremely important, as fashion, like other arts, gives birth to its masterpieces. We are talking about the intricate patterns created by Charles Frederick Worth, Paul Poiret, Sonia Delaunay, Elsa Schiaparelli, Coco Chanel, Cristobal Balenciaga, Christian Dior, Yves Saint Laurent and others, who today are arousing cultural and aesthetic respect with the high creative standard invention and genius.
A silk atlas dress from Worth, around 1892
Photo: © History of fashion from the XVIII to the XX century. Collection of the Kyoto Costume Institute.
"Art-Rodnik", Moscow, 2003.
A dress by Paul Poiret, 1923.
Photo: © Borge, J., Viasnoff, N. Fashion Archives. Editions Michele Trinckvel, 1995.
Evening dress by Chanel, made of silk, gold embroidery and crystal cylindrical beads, 1922
Photo: © Lussier, S. Art Deco Fashion. Bulfinch press. Boston, New York, London, 2003, p.37.
  As aesthetic phenomenon, fashion is a dynamic visual art that has a multifunctional character, encompassing both the pragmatic residential areas of the utilitarian style of living and the high artistic suggestions of original and influential artifacts born by the creators of high-quality clothing as a result of trends and transformations in human civilization and culture. Fashion design is one of the main but not the only driving force of fashion. Anti-fashion, in particular sub-culture, street style and amateur garments and additions should also be taken into account in the final constitution of fashion as a social, aesthetic and cultural phenomenon.
1. The nature of fashion as art
   Several serious arguments will help us to better reflect the nature of fashion as a true art: its creative character, the essence of the fashion designer, the relationship between fashion and other arts, and the aesthetic impact of fashion models. Here we have no opportunity to discuss in detail also other important evidence such as the essence and nature of the creative process in fashion design (inspiration, abstraction and synthesis), the meaning and meaning of fashion as a spectacle, the peculiarities of the experiment in fashion design, which in no way diminishes their value.
1.1 The creative nature of fashion
   The creative character of fashion can be justified in several directions. The first is the deep connection between fine and plastic arts and fashion, in which the illustration, drawing and sketch are among the main and leading projects in the creation of clothing, accessories and other components of the exterior of man (including hair, makeup, cosmetics, body arts, etc.). to the utmost extent, the way the costume is created, the garment is similar to the way the painting and the sculpture are created. Another direction is the artistic, spiritual and intangible aspects of fashion that suggest creative search and discovery of new forms, fabrics, colors, silhouettes, volumes, constructive solutions, etc. Irrational means and techniques for creation of works - intuition, fantasy, intuition, experience, provocation and manifestation of the subconscious - are of great importance here. A third, but not the last, way to justify the creative nature of fashion is that, like every work and art, it has the relevant audience - connoisseurs and consumers. We draw attention to the fact that we associate and treat especially those recipients who are looking for contact with fashion works, led by spiritual and aesthetic motives. They visit shows - shows, exhibitions and museums; communicate with catalogs and albums, or watch TV shows and films about the great in fashion design and fashion, in order to enrich themselves spiritually and not to satisfy some pragmatic need and to satisfy their own material or commercial interest.
1.2 The fashion designer as an artist
   The fashion designer, as the creator of fashion items, is similar to the classical artists of artists - artists, composers, writers, singers, directors, artists and others. In his quest for his original philosophy and aesthetics, in defining his own style and style, he appears to be a complexly constructed creative personality with a rich emotional and spiritual world, infiltrated by the accumulations of life and different arts. It is appropriate to bring the opinion of Professor Valentin Angelov, who convincingly reveals the kinship and similarity between the fashion designer on the one hand and the artist from the sphere of painting and sculpture on the other: "Searching for his own style, self-expression as a creative vision of his own repertoire of expression and plastic! - just the models for the fashion show "spectacle" are the most gratifying for the purpose. In this case, the model works in the same way as the artist (painter or sculptor). Distanced from practical tasks, he expresses his Self - his views, aesthetic principles and creed; through clothing he shows the woman in the appropriate light according to his views ... Thus, fashion design becomes art. It`s hardly anyone today to challenge high fashion as a kind of art. "
   Fashion designers are rightly cited as part of the spiritual elite and the core of the creative leaders of a decade or a century. The proximity - spiritual and human - between Paul Poiret and Sergey Dyagilev, Elsa Schiaparelli and Salvador Dali, Coco Chanel and Pablo Picasso and other examples testify to the 
 Evening clothing by Elsa Schiaparelli, made of designer fabric by Salvador Dali – 1938.
Photo: Cesil Beaton / Victoria & Albert Museum
other examples testify to the deeply creative nature of fashion design and its recognition by far more established and old-fashioned arts and their representatives. Among the many arguments for legalizing fashion as an art is the adoption in 1992 of Pierre Cardin as a full member of the French Academy of Fine Arts.
1.3 Fashion and other arts
   The relationship between fashion and other arts is complex, ambiguous and multidimensional. It is expressed in the mutual influence of fashion and sculpture; fashion and painting; fashion and theater; fashion and cinema; fashion and ballet. There are many different ways in which they penetrate each other and impress on content, expression and expression. In some cases, they act inspiringly, while in others they are inspired by an object-subject and fragmentarily enriching. Strong and persuasive is the argumentation of fashion as a kind of art, set forth in the works of Richard Martin - one of the most remarkable contemporary researchers and designer of the fashion design and long-time curator of the Costume Institute at the Metropolitan Museum in New York, "Fashion and Surrealism" [2] and "Cubism and Fashion" [3].
   Additional light on the artistic and aesthetic nature of fashion throws one of the most interesting periods in the history of art - deco. Interpretation of this style in fashion design shows the significant dimensions of the bridge between fashion and other arts. The term "deco" refers to aesthetics in fashion between 1909 and 1939, which offers parallel signs and techniques to those of architecture, painting, textiles, fine and decorative arts, photography and cinema. The subjective and formal features of the works supported in this spirit are dominated by motifs and ideas, images and colorful dominants typical of folk art, ancient cultures and, of course, avant-garde art. The latter has a particularly strong impact on fashion design, particularly with its Favist and Cubism (France), Constructivism (Russia) and Futurism (Italy). As specific stylistic features and fashionable features, the decorative features of Paul Poiret, Jean Patou, Jana Lanven, Coco Chanel, Natalia Goncharova, Sonia Delaunay, Madeleine Vionnet and other outstanding designers are clearly visible. Fashion studies in the twenties of the twentieth century unequivocally point out how fashion has interacted with other arts, inspiring them and simultaneously serving them as irreplaceable media. Sonia Delaunay and her creativity is a particularly strong argument in the interpretation of fashion as an influential new art. She is not only an inspired experimenter and avant-garde, but also an interesting thinker and author of conceptual aesthetic schemes and models. 

 Sonia Delaunay, dressed in a garment - a work of her "simultaneous art", 1923.

Photo © Ermilova, D.Yu. History of fashion houses, "Academy". Moscow, 2003.
   It was no accident that in 1927 Sonia Delaunay was invited to the Sorbonne to read lectures, including her program "The Influence of Painting on Fashion". Researchers note that she has contributed too much to the emancipation of clothing from the canons of high fashion. In the in-depth study of Radu Stern "Against fashion" we read: "In her work" The Influence of Painting on Fashion "Sonia Delaunay makes a parallel between the evolution of modern drawing and the release of clothing from the high fashion academy, saying that the construction and knitting of a garment should is done at the same time as decorating it. Therefore, the traditional division between the design of the embossed fabric and that of the garment should be denied. This denial has been achieved in the first simultaneous dresses where color contrast is used to blend the body of the wearer with the garment itself "[5]. 
Jacket by Sonia Delaunay, 1923.
Photo: © Stern, R. Against fashion: clothing as art, 1850-1930. London : MIT Press, 2004.
   One of Sonia Delaunay`s great merits to the world`s theory and practice of fashion design is that she stands for the view of the integrity of textile design and clothing design. At the heart of its philosophy is the belief that color and / or composition influence the garment itself, and therefore needs to be simultaneous, designing at the same time. In her work "The Influence of Painting on Fashion," after examining the views and techniques of Delacroix, Cézanne, Sora, Matisse, and Impressionism in general, she writes: "The fashion that has only been influenced by painting so far has had to be inventive. The cut of the garment is conceived at the same time as the decoration. This new attitude logically leads to the generosity that R. Delone recently patented, and this was used by me in co-operation with Redefine Company. This is the factory-right tissue-patron. This right, along with the decorative elements appropriate to the design, were copied onto the garment. So this is the first step from a creative point of view in the collaboration between the cutter and the decorator "[6].
   Madeleine Vionnet another significant example of the relationship between fashion and classical arts. She never hid and did not suppress her interest in painting, sculpting, and partly in architecture. The inspiration he draws from the superb forms of antique sculptures and Greek statues and provides the acclaim "Euclid in fashion". As a child she dreamed of becoming a coward. The plastic arts (especially the sculpture) have attracted a great deal. She painted perfectly and this helps her in artistic reproduction and memorization by rewriting various works of art seen in world museums and galleries. At the beginning of the First World War, when her fashion house did not work, she traveled to Rome and met the masterpieces of ancient Greek and ancient Roman art. The draperies of the antique statues hit her, the shapes and drawings of the gorgeous Greek vases that will later inspire her in a collection of hers are forever embedded in her memory and aesthetic soul. Its exposure to statues, paintings, objects and various exhibits in the Louvre also enriches it in a cultural, spiritual and aesthetic way. In 1922, she evoked ovations with her models inspired by the shapes and decorations of vases so widely spread in Ancient Greece, and a year earlier - in 1921 she made a real furor with her collection across the ocean - in the United States. Fashion historians explicitly draw attention to the fact that Vione not only replayed the art of the drapery from the ancient sculptures, "Tunics" and "peplos", enriching it and giving it a modern sound, complicating it and giving it more functionality with the help of the veet cut. Her clients were specially instructed and prepared to dress and wear these flat-stitched clothes. 
Sketches by Madeleine Vionnet for Women`s Wear Daily, 1931-1939.
Illustrations: © Women`s Wear Daily / Stegemeyer, A. Who`s Who in Fashion.
Third edition. Capital Cities Media, Inc. Fairchild Publications, New York, 1996.
 Salvador Dali. Three young surreal women holding the orchestra`s shells in 1936.
Source: Mackrell, A. Art and fashion. The Impact of Art on Fashion and fashion on Art.
“Batsford”, London, 2005, p.145.
Salvador Dali. Le veston aphrodisiaque (1936).
Source: Salvador Dali
Yves Saint Laurent dress inspired by Pitt Mondrian and made of wool jersey - autumn-winter collection 1965-1966.
Illustration: Yves Saint Laurent. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1983.
   It would also be interesting to track specific aesthetic and creative cases related to the penetration of Cubism in the works of Paul Poiret, Lucille, Coco Chanel, Madeleine Vionnet, André Courreigne, Pierre Cardin, Yves Saint Laurent, Ray Kawakubo and other ingenious fashion designers. The creative experience of artists such as Giacomo Bala, Salvador Dali and Andy Warhol adds to the theory of fashion as art. Their works, experiments and experiments give the profound and extremely serious attitude of avant-garde to fashion and, in particular, to the unusual cultural, symbolic and aesthetic qualities of the garment. Even more interesting is the vast array of examples of how their art has influenced fashion and contributed to its development as a polyvalent and responsive artistic system.
1.4 Aesthetic impact of fashion
     The aesthetic impact of fashion models may be judged on the basis of the audience`s emotional feelings about masterpieces (and not just masterpieces) in fashion art. These sensations include adoration, piety, delight, and even ecstasy caused by the sublime effect of perceiving the work of the fashion design. Here - albeit with a certain conditionality - "work" the classical notions of exalted and beautiful, beautiful and high. These aesthetic categories can be integrated into one of the most versatile fashionable terms "elegant" and "elegance". However, at least one other aesthetic effect of the impact of fashion models on the recipients (connoisseurs, critics, journalists, consumers, etc.) must be brought to light. The effect is related to the recreational resource with which modern fashion is loaded. The hedonism, born to the present-day fashion design, especially in the show and fashion show, is similar to the enjoyment of more traditional forms of popular culture and show business (concerts, recitals, happenings, performances, tours, live performances, etc.). At the same time, his nature is different. It is more fascinating and total because the display of the new fashion is increasingly associated with postmodern multimedia technologies, video and photo installations, animations, as well as integrated stage and visual forms known by the arsenals of cinema, theater, circus, opera and ballet.
2. Haute Couture
     Higher, and this means superlative, unique and incredibly expensive fashion, generally includes clothing and jewelery, accessories and accessories made mostly by hand from high quality, expensive materials with great perfection and attention. Also - as a rule - it is a symbol and synonym for the best achievements in fashion, perceived as art. It dates back to the second half of the 19th century.
2.1 The Beginning of Haute Couture
    Charles Frederick Worth was the father of Haute Couture. He created it in 1868 at France the Syndicate Chamber of High Fashion, which allowed only those designers and fashion houses to achieve high quality workmanship with the use of mainly handmade work and the execution of individual orders. The House defended the high vocation of the creators of unique garments and cared for the protection of their copyrights and the protection of their original works from imitations and plagiarisms. Much of the rules and principles invented by the great curate are also valid in our time when - while collapsing - the high fashion is still alive. We can trust the brief but comprehensive explanation that fashion analyst Charlotte Seiling commented on the genius of the designer, namely his ability to "combine the English technology of making women`s clothes with the French skill to demonstrate the splendor" [7].
Evening dresses from Worth, 1887.
Photo: ©  Metropolitan Museum of Art`s collection of Costume Institute
   In many things, he is a pioneer Charles Frederick Worth, but it is undoubtedly his merit for the fashionable presentation, advertising and demonstration of the new models. It is precisely the practice that new fashion trends should be shown by living mannequins, the most honorable of which was his own wife, Marie Vern. A significant part of his mannequins, however, were "imported" from England. It is interesting to note that, with the help of the mannequins, he demonstrated the new fashion not only to private customers, but also to clothing dealers and dressmakers. Charles Frederick Worth is also the first creator of clothing to begin signing his works.
2.2 Modern mutations and metamorphoses
   Unique works are at fabulous prices and it makes sense to be in the pockets of a few super-rich people. So in the second half of the twentieth century haute couture increasingly rivaled by clothing and ready-wear (prêt-a-porter) to reach the point that today the largest senior stylists like Pierre Cardin, Yves Saint Laurent, Karl Lagerfeld, Christian Lacroix, Valentino, Gianfranco Ferre, John Galliano and others, create the
 Drawings of Yves Saint Laurent to his Russian collection autumn-winter 1976-1977.
Source: McDowell, C. Fashion Today. “Phaidon”, London, 2000, p.299.
ready-made clothing - pre-a-porte or pre-a-porte de luxe. In recent years there has been a tide of high fashion, and nowadays the world of unique clothing customers does not exceed a number ranging from several hundred to several thousand. Inevitable mutations and metamorphoses occur in the structure of the unique style. More and more collections of class are created not so much because of the profits from the sales, but mostly because of advertising and maintaining the image of the brand. One of the most extreme advocates of the thesis that the fashion trend is dead is the American author Terry Ejins, who is also familiar with the translation of her book The End of Fashion. For high fashion, she says: "Traditionally, fashion has received much of its power and temptation for its originality, uniqueness and exclusiveness - from the fact that no woman will want the same couture model as the other. But this fashion died. The new fashion means engaging, belonging to a world and a way of life that is "nice to touch", looks good and, more than anything, is accessible. "[8] The beginning of the end of high fashion begins with the outbreak of the Gulf War in 1991. Until then, the French haute couture had certain clients in the face of the richest women in the Middle East, even though they constitute only 15% of the total clientele of unique clothing pay more than half the amount officially announced by the 23 French designers of haute couture - namely - $ 24 million. [9]. Since the Persian War, things have gone down and since then the French and world fashion are no longer the same.
2.3 Will high fashion die?
   Especially important is the role of fashion theory in the precise clarification of such new trends in the creation of unique and luxurious fashion goods, such as the search for and the finding of the long-awaited trade-off between high fashion and clothing through the so-called "null curry"; creating and distributing high fashion, which is not so expensive and which is closer to the definition of "luxury ready-made clothes". But to respond to this real challenge, the theory of fashion and fashion design must create a reliable profile not only for the modern fashion creator, but also for the fashion user and especially his attitude to live more practical, more sporty, more naughty. But scientists-aesthetists and fashion analysts should realize that the eradication of high fashion and the bankruptcy of her works could create the danger of challenging the importance of fashion and fashion design as art. And everyone knows that among the most serious arguments for the equality of fashion with other arts is the recognition of her masterpieces from the most famous museums in the world, such as Victoria and Albert in London, Galliera Palace in Paris, the Museum the fashion and decorative arts at the Louvre in Paris, the Metropolitan Museum in New York and others.
   Is the end of high fashion coming? And are not the rumors of her death exaggerated? It is logical to agree with at least three reasons why the high fashion will continue to live. The first relates to marketing and to the persuasiveness with which it asserts the prestige of a fashion brand. According to Bernard Arno - owner of Christian Dior and a bunch of more fashion houses, high fashion is a great way to demonstrate the high reputation of the brand and it reflects on all lines - cosmetics, clothing, accessories. The second reason for the longevity and the promise of the high fashion is that it is a form of art and that thanks to it, new ideas in fashion design are generated. The third reason rests on the role that high fashion plays in traditional crafts. Through orders for expensive and unique collections, important crafts such as embroidery, lace, hats, gloves, etc. survive and store. [10]
    Paco Rabanne argues that high fashion gives the artist the opportunity to experiment with new materials, new techniques and new forms [11]; according to Olivier Lapidius, freedom of thought gives birth to high fashion collections and is an expression of a certain culture, and for Emmanuel Ungaro the birth of the great fashion is like a poetic act - firstly it comes to sleep and then to reality. Unique garments made by the greatest needle masters concentrate on extremely expensive materials, original techniques, and are the fruit of professional virtuosity. They outgrow the limits of everyday consumption and acquire the value of masterpieces.
      If we look together in some of the most significant works of the top stylists, we will surely experience pleasure, equally just the enjoyment of the experience communicating with masterpieces of fine arts. Each dress, jacket, blouse; any mantle, necklace or frog made out of the most expensive fabrics and decorations, incl. and real diamonds, pearls and other precious stones sparkle the imagination and enjoy the eye with the incredible virtuosity of the human hand, the exact choice of materials, the perfect technique of craftsmanship. That is why, often, the corridors of the unique fashion call it "high arts craftsmanship".
2.4 The history of clothing is becoming a story of art
  For Christian Dior thhe chief designer, John Galliano, for example, high fashion is not only an irreplaceable opportunity to create but, as he himself admits, "a way to discover the secrets of 
A dress by John Galliano, autumn-winter 1998-1999.
Photo: © Patrice Stable
the past. "Recognizing that he likes to sit in the libraries and to study the history of fine art and costume, he says," I burn out of desire to I find all the secrets in history. The past has to be understood. That`s what all the great artists did, using it as a springboard for the future. It seems to me that the future will be concentrated in the technique. "
   Poetry on silk, lyrical drawings and painted lyrics is the sense of the style of the renowned Japanese fashion designer Hannae Mori. "Tenderness, boundless fantasy and love for exquisite clothes characterize her unforgettable unique collections of fashionable fashion For one of her winter collections, the designer shared her desire to take the audience into the fairy-tale worlds of beauty, conceived in the spirit of the great Jean Cocteau, whose sentiment is not limited to this allusion, but is further exacerbated by the allegory of Ali are in the wondrous country "by Lewis Carroll, feelings and intentions dressed with the highest professionalism and materialized by tweed, cobweb, shawl and stamped silk.
   One of the brightest authorities in modern high fashion, Yves Saint Laurent, hopes to get closer to the absolute, with his unique works, and alongside Dior and Chanel, to make the story of the garment turn into a history of art. In most of her high fashion collections, Yves Saint Laurent worshiped the black color, defining it as the only one, and as a leader in the portraits of the Renaissance. Most often, its defiles offer true waterfalls of beautiful and unique clothing and charm, and perhaps also - unique women. Such an abundance of gorgeous creations created by vase and samur, jar, muslin-imprime, satin, lame, and velvet with emerald embroidery is the reason why words come in our own words like "astonishing", "fantastic," " divine "! After one more touch of the masterpieces of one of the brightest symbols of French high fashion, Yves Saint Laurent, we want to say, "The classic and its latest interpretations in design are immortal!"
* * *
   Non-transient fashion patterns or more - the masterpieces of fashion design, like classic artwork, are able to outlive the time, delivering aesthetic delight to generations after generations. This is because the creators of fashion at heart are artists and artists. Their works contain a charge of unusually high talent bordering on genius and, along with it, a subtle sensitivity to social and cultural vibrations. We have convinced that fashion is a particularly influential visual art of a syncretic type based on the analysis of its relation to other arts and the interpenetration of its traditional aesthetics. It is true that traditional art uses fashion as a medium for spreading its ideas and images, and fashion draws from the same art of inspiration. But the opposite is true: we are increasingly seeing how fashion uses different arts as its media, and they, in turn, capture ideas and suggestions of fashion (directly or indirectly, literally or aloof).
  The nature of the fashion designer, the creative nature of the fashion design itself, as well as the manifestations and works of the high fashion show the full relation between fashion and art. Undisputed arguments in favor of such a thesis are the work of the most famous garment creators, in the halls and galleries of the world`s fashion and textile museums, and last but not least, in the unusual interest and piety of the huge audience. By communicating with the sophisticated and passionate and passionate creations of original and artistic creators, one can not remain indifferent to the appeal of beauty and the call of elegance. What is more, he understands the meaning of fashion as an unusual art.
[1] Angelov, V. Art & Aesthetics. The crisis in aesthetics and the challenges of avant-garde art. "When." S., 2005, p.203. [in Bulgarian]
[2] Martin, R. Fashion and Surrealism. The Fashion Institute of Technology. Rizzoly International Publications, Inc., New York, 1987.
[3] Martin, R. Cubism and Fashion. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1998.
[4] See: Lussier, S. Art Deco Fashion. Bulfinch press. Boston, New York, London, 2003, p. 6-7.
[5] See: Stern, R. Against fashion: clothing as art, 1850-1930. London: MIT Press, 2004, p. 68.
[6] Delaunay, S. The influence of painting on fashion. In: See. Stern, R. Against fashion: clothing as art, 1850-1930. London: MIT Press, 2004, p. 185.
[7] Seeling, Charlotte. Fashion. The century of the designer 1900-1999. Konömann, 2000, Cologne, p.16.
[8] Agins, T. The End of Fashion. W studio. S., 2000, pp. 92-93. [in Bulgarian]
[9] Ibid., Pp. 42-43.
[10] See: Tungate, M. Fashion brands. Branding Style from Armani to Zara. "Kogan page" .London and Sterling, VA, 2005, pp. 138-140.
[11] Stoykov, L. World Fashion - Part I (England and France). "From Needle to Thread". S., 2000, p. 170. [in Bulgarian]
[12] Ibid., P. 152.
* The first post of this text is: Stoykov, Lubomir. Fashion as art or ... for the eternity in the style of dressing, magazine "Art Problems". Institute of Art Studies, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, vol. 2, 2006, pp. 28-39. [in Bulgarian]
Suggested Bibliographic Citation:

Stoykov, Lubomir. Fashion as a visual art. // Media and social communications. University of National and World Economy / Alma communication, №28, July 2016. Available from: [http://www.media-journal.info/p=item&aid=348]


дата на публикуване: 28.07.2016, Четвъртък, 16:55
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